Third Person Singular Present Tense
By and large, English does not conjugate verbs for person. The notable exception here is the third person singular for present tense, indicated mostly by adding a letter "~s" to the end of a verb. Depending upon the verb in question, sometimes this inflection is pronounced as either ~卅 or ~拶. Hwayih Woen spares the user from the necessity of determining which vocalization is the "correct" pronunciation by universalizing the suffix "~沞" for the Third Person Singular Present Tense.
Example Sentence: "He sees me."
Hwayih Woen Translation: “他 见沞 吾”。
Important Note: In Hwayih Woen, there are THREE exceptions to this rule. This guide strongly recommends the student to pay especially close attention to their relevant formulations in the Ligature Chart. The exceptions are:
1) The Verb "To Be"
2) The Verb "To Have"
3) The Verb "To Go"
~坔 VS. ~了
For regular verbs, English adds an "~ed" at the end of the verb to indicate past tense. Depending upon the verb in question, sometimes this inflection is pronounced as either ~涾 or ~迚. Hwayih Woen spares the user from the necessity of determining which vocalization is the "correct" pronunciation by universalizing the suffix "~坔" for the past tense of regular verbs.
Example Sentence: "I pushed it."
Hwayih Woen Translation: “我 推坔 它”。
For irregular verbs, Hwayih Woen uses the suffix ~了 to express past tense.
Example Sentence: "I stood there."
Hwayih Woen Translation: “我 立了 那”
Continuous Tense & Gerunds
Hwayih Woen also provides the character“~着” to indicate all “~ing” verb forms, as in:
English: “I am drinking water”
Hwayih Woen: “我 係 喝着 水”。
English: “Drinking water is fun for me.”
Hwayih Woen: “喝着 水 是 玩 为 吾”。
Standard written English attaches “~ly” to the end of adjectives to create adverbs. Similarly, Hwayih Woen attaches “~得” to the end of adjectives to create adverbs. Examples include:
~卅/~拶 VS. ~们
Standard written English inflects regular nouns for pluralization by adding “~s” at the end of the noun, as in “cats” and “dogs;” however, spoken English often converts the ending letter ~s into the sound of the letter Z depending on the noun in question. Consequently, Hwayih Woen uses “~卅” and “~拶” to respectively represent these pluralization sound distinctions. Examples include:
Conversely, Hwayih Woen uses the suffix “~们” to inflect all irregular nouns. Examples include:
men — 男们
feet — 脚们
teeth — 牙齿们
mice — 鼷鼠们
Additionally, in those instances where the user is unable to determine with certainty whether a pluralized regular noun ends with the S sound or Z sound, Hwayih Woen permits using the suffix ~们 as an informal shorthand.
Standard written English inflects nouns and propernouns by adding "~'s/~s'" at the end of a word or name. By contrast, Hwayih Woen uses the character ~弖 (without an apostrophe) to inflect for the possessive, regardless of whether the word in question is singular and plural. Examples include:
cat's — 猫弖
school's — 学校
boy's — 囝弖
boys' — 囝拶弖
girl's — 囡弖
girls' — 囡拶弖
New York's — |纽约|弖
Bobby's — |茇仴茇籴|弖
Standard English orthography uses the suffixes “~er” or “~or” to reference a verbal agent; viz. one who “does” the verb. Examples include:
By comparison, Hwayin Woen uses the suffix “~者” to fulfill the same function, as in:
writer — 写者
runner — 跑者
liberator — 解放者
Fields of Study
Modern standard Chinese uses the character 学 as a suffix to indicate a field of study. Hwayih Woen largely follows this convention with one key difference. In instances where standard written English indicates a field of study via the Greek suffix “~ology,” Hwayih Woen uses the suffix ~斈. Examples include:
physiology — 生理斈
biology — 生物斈
sociology — 社会斈
psychology — 心理斈
Conversely, for fields of study that do not end in “~ology,” Hwayih Woen follows Modern Standard Chinese written conventions. Examples include:
economics — 经济学
chemistry — 化学
science — 科学
physics — 物理学
philosophy — 哲学