ARTICLES

​定冠词

Definite:


本 — the


Indefinite:


个 — a

个笝 — an

Note: Because ligatures approximate meaning, as opposed to sound, it is possible for the pronunciation of a single ligature to alter and/or shift depending on context—vaguely similar to how “desert” and “desert” can take on different pronunciations depending on whether one is speaking about a geographical region lacking water versus a confectionery treat. In instances where the user wishes to express a more specific degree of pronunciation precision, rendering the two indefinite articles as—for example—“嚜” and “嵓笝” respectively may also be considered equally correct, much in the same way that “@” and “at” are interchangeable in most instances.

 

PRONOUNS

​​代词

Subject Form


Nominative Singular:


我 — I


你 — you


他 — he


她 — she


它 — it


Nominative Plural:


咱 — we


伊 — they


Possessive Singular:


我嘅 — my


你嘅 — your


他嘅 — his


她嘅 — her


它嘅 — its


Possessive Plural:


咱嘅 — our


伊嘅 — their


Object Form


Accusative Singular:


吾 — me


汝 — you**


亓 — him


丌 — her


**Note: In modern English, the object form of the second person pronoun is identical to the subject form; however, Hwayih Woen provides the user the option, but not the obligation, of reinstating in written form the original Anglo-Saxon subject-object distinction that survived into the Middle Ages. Ergo, object uses of the second person pronoun (as in “the boss berated you”) can be rendered as either 汝; or—if the user prefers to maintain written congruence with oral speech—你.


Accusative Plural:


俺 — us


佢 — them


Substantive Singular:


吾嘅 — mine


你嘅 — yours


他嘅 — his


她嘅 — hers


Substantive Plural:


俺嘅 — ours


佢嘅 — theirs

 

LOCATION INDICATORS

​定位词

这 — here


那 — there

 

DEMONSTRATIVES

​指向词

Singular:


此 — this


彼 — that


Note: When "that" operates as a pronoun, Hwayih Woen uses the above listed form, as in: "That new professor is Dr. Lee."(彼新教授~是|博士李|。)

However, when "that" is used to indicate an attached modifier, Hwayih Woen uses the ligature “的涾”,as in: "The mountain that Steve saw is in Asia."(本山~的涾|卅涾籴甶|见了是内|亚洲|。)

Hwayih Woen also uses this same form when "that" indicates an indicrect sentence structure, as in: "I knew that he came."(我知道了*的涾他来了。)

Plural:


此们 — these


彼们 — those

 

QUESTION WORDS

​疑问词

谁 — Who


何 — What


侯 — When


焉 — Where


曷 — Why


怎 — How

 

CONJUNCTIONS

​​连词

与 — and


或 — or


但 — but


倘 — if


的虿 — which


之 — of


虽 — although


因 — because


尔 — so


比 — than


遂 — then


那为 — therefore


怎曾 — however

 

PREPOSITIONS

​​介词

内 — in


至 — to


外 — out


从 — from


之 — of


上笝 — on


上苩 — up


上苩仴笝 — upon


上邚 — over


下佱 — off


下邚 — under


下笝 — down


下旯吘 — below


为 — for


如 — as


跟 — with


在 — at


以 — by


关于 — about


周围 — around


通 — through

 

NEGATION

​​否定词

不 — not


无 — no


无邚 — nor

 

NUMBERS

​​数字

In standard English orthography, one can write numbers in either: 1) Arabic numerals, or 2) lexically written out—depending on what’s appropriate for the context.  Hwayih Woen preserves this binary.  Where writing Arabic numerals is appropriate in Standard English, so too is it appropriate to directly use Arabic numerals in Hwayih Woen.  Where “writing out” numbers is necessary, Hwayih Woen makes use of the following ligatures. 


Cardinal:


零 — zero


一 — one


二 — two


三 — three


四 — four


五 — five


六 — six


七 — seven


八 — eight


九 — nine


十 — ten


十一 — eleven


十二 — twelve


十三 — thirteen


十四 — fourteen


十五 — fifteen


二十 — twenty


三十 — thirty


四十 — forty


五十 — fifty


一百 — one hundred


二百 — two hundred


一千 — one thousand


二千 — two thousand


十千 — ten thousand


二十千 — twenty thousand


一亿 — one million


一兆 — one billion


Ordinal:


壹 — first


贰 — second


叁 — third


肆 — fourth


伍 — fifth


踛 — sixth


柒 — seventh


捌 — eighth


玖 — ninth


拾 — tenth


佰 — hundredth


仟 — thousandth


億 — millionth


窕 — billionth


The reader will note the following operative principle: in cases where one “writes out” ordinal numbers, ligature forms MATCH Standard English’s written forms.  For example, when writing out the full name of the “One Hundred and First Airborne Division,” Hwayih Woen will appropriately render as: 一 百 与 壹 空降师.  However, when using Arabic numerals, Hwayih Woen places the ligature 第 BEFORE the number sequence.  Taking the previous example in its most common form, the “101st Airborne Division” will render as: “|第101 空降师|.”

Note: In this respect, the ligature 第 is equivalent to the superscript “st” behind a number, albeit in the prefix position as opposed to the Standard English suffix position. 


Multiplicative:


Hwayih Woen attaches the ligature 次 AFTER the cardinal number to create the multiplicative form.  As in:


一次 — once


二次 — twice


三次 — thrice


etc.


In instances where Standard English uses the word “time/s” to indicate the multiplicative, Hwayih Woen uses the ligature 时 after the cardinal number, following Standard English spacing conventions.  As in:


一时 — one time


二时们 — two times


etc.

 

COPULAE: THE VERB "TO BE"

系词

Infinitive:


(至)乃 — (to) be


Present Tense:


係 — am


喺 — are


是 — is


Past Tense:


係了 — was


喺了 — were


Continuous Tense:


乃笝 — been

 

THE VERB "TO HAVE"

​拥有动词

Present Tense:


有甶 — have


有拶 — has


Past Tense:


有迚 — had

 

THE VERB "TO GO"

​​出行动词

Present Tense:


去 — go


去拶 — goes


Past Tense:


去了 — went

 

SPEECH VERBS

​​言论动词

说 — say

说沞 — says

说了 — said

讲 — speak

讲沞 — speaks

讲了 — spoke

谈 — talk

谈沞 — talks

谈坔 — talked

告诉 — tell

告诉沞 — tells

告诉了 — told

 

PROCURMENT VERBS

​​获取动词

获 — get


获沞 — gets


获了 — got


取 — take


取沞 — takes


取了 — took


携带 — bring


携带沞 — brings


携带了 — brought


拿 — hold


拿沞 — holds


拿了 — held


拎 — carry


拎沞 — carries


拎坔 — carried

 

EXPLORATION VERBS

​求索动词

找 — find


找沞 — finds


找了 — found


觅求 — search


觅求沞 — searches


觅求坔 — searched


寻觅 — seek


寻觅沞 — seeks


寻觅了 — sought

 

LARGE QUANTITY WORDS

表示大量的词

多笝籴 — many


多虿 — much


多邚 — more


多最 — most

 

SMALL QUANTITY WORDS

表示小量的词

少襾汙 — few


少屲荋 — fewer


少最 — fewest


少卅 — less


少卅荋 — lesser


少最 — least

 

MISCELLANEOUS VERBS

杂类动词

可 — can


可了 — could


Note: When the verb “can” is used to indicate past tense, use the above ligature, as in: “I could do the splits when I was 19 years old.”  However, when used to indicate modality, write out 偘歮迚 using the phonetic characters, as in: “I could easily teach class if I wanted to.”


做 — do


做沞 — does


做了 — did


使 — make


使沞 — makes


使了 — made


让 — let


让沞 — lets


将会 — will


宁 — would


需 — need


需沞 — needs


需坔 — needed


要 — want


要沞 — wants


要坔 — wanted


用 — use


用沞 — uses


用坔 — used


看 — look


看沞 — looks


看坔 — looked


见 — see


见沞 — sees


见了 — saw


撰写 — write


撰写沞 — writes


撰写了 — wrote


叫 — call


叫沞 — calls


叫坔 — called


成 — become


成沞 — becomes


成了 — became


想 — think


想沞 — thinks


想了 — thought


来 — come


来沞 — comes


来了 — came


坐 — sit


坐沞 — sits


坐了 — sat


立 — stand


立沞 — stands


立了 — stood


像 — like (when making a comparison between objects or things, as in: “voices like angels”)


喜欢 — like (when used as a verb, as in: “dogs like treats”)


喜欢沞 — likes


喜欢坔 — liked

 

MISCELLANEOUS NOUNS

​​杂类名词

词 — word


词拶 — words


人 — person


人拶 — persons


民 — people


民拶 — peoples


日 — day


日拶 — days


道 — way


道拶 — ways


国 — country


国度 — state (to describe an apparatus of governance, as in: “the state”)


州 — state (to describe a federal subsidiary structure, as in: “New York State”)


状态 — state (to describe a condition, as in: “a state of chaos”)

囻 — nation


囻迚籴 — nationality

 

MISCELLANEOUS ADJECTIVES

​​杂类形容词

都 — all


各 — each


每 — every


任 — any


另 — other


些 — some (when describing a moderate amount, as in: “some cash”)


某 — some (when describing the generic, as in : “some unknown location”)


长 — long


短 — short


大玍 — big


大抯 — large


小旯 — small


稍 — little


能 — able

 

MISCELLANEOUS ADVERBS

​​杂类副词

很 — very


曾 — ever


笝曾 — never


仍 — still


尚 — yet