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本 — the


个 — a

个笝 — an

Note: Because ligatures approximate meaning, as opposed to sound, it is possible for the pronunciation of a single ligature to alter and/or shift depending on context—vaguely similar to how “desert” and “desert” can take on different pronunciations depending on whether one is speaking about a geographical region lacking water versus a confectionery treat. In instances where the user wishes to express a more specific degree of pronunciation precision, rendering the two indefinite articles as—for example—“嚜” and “嵓笝” respectively may also be considered equally correct, much in the same way that “@” and “at” are interchangeable in most instances.

Struggling with the complexity of these logograms?

Click below for Unit One of McGuffey's First Eclectic Reader—Senior Script edition.

Ligature Database: About



Subject Form

Nominative Singular:

我 — I

你 — you

他 — he

她 — she

它 — it

Nominative Plural:

咱 — we

伊 — they

Possessive Singular:

我嘅 — my

你嘅 — your

他嘅 — his

她嘅 — her

它嘅 — its

Possessive Plural:

咱嘅 — our

伊嘅 — their

Object Form

Accusative Singular:

吾 — me

汝 — you**

亓 — him

丌 — her

**Note: In modern English, the object form of the second person pronoun is identical to the subject form; however, Hwayih Woen provides the user the option, but not the obligation, of reinstating in written form the original Anglo-Saxon subject-object distinction that survived into the Middle Ages. Ergo, object uses of the second person pronoun (as in “the boss berated you”) can be rendered as either 汝; or—if the user prefers to maintain written congruence with oral speech—你.

Accusative Plural:

俺 — us

佢 — them

Substantive Singular:

吾嘅 — mine

你嘅 — yours

他嘅 — his

她嘅 — hers

Substantive Plural:

俺嘅 — ours

佢嘅 — theirs

Ligature Database: About



这 — here

那 — there

Ligature Database: About




此 — this

彼 — that

Note: When "that" operates as a pronoun, Hwayih Woen uses the above listed form, as in: "That new professor is Dr. Lee."(彼新教授~是|博士李|。)

However, when "that" is used to indicate an attached modifier, Hwayih Woen uses the ligature “的涾”,as in: "The mountain that Steve saw is in Asia."(本山~的涾|卅涾籴甶|见了是内|亚洲|。)

Hwayih Woen also uses this same form when "that" indicates an indicrect sentence structure, as in: "I knew that he came."(我知道了*的涾他来了。)


此们 — these

彼们 — those

Ligature Database: About



谁 — Who

何 — What

侯 — When

焉 — Where

曷 — Why

怎 — How

Ligature Database: About



与 — and

或 — or

但 — but

倘 — if

的虿 — which

之 — of

虽 — although

因 — because

尔 — so

比 — than

遂 — then

那为 — therefore

怎曾 — however

Ligature Database: About



内 — in

至 — to

外 — out

从 — from

之 — of

上笝 — on

上苩 — up

上苩仴笝 — upon

上邚 — over

下佱 — off

下邚 — under

下笝 — down

下旯吘 — below

为 — for

如 — as

跟 — with

在 — at

以 — by

关于 — about

周围 — around

通 — through

Ligature Database: About



不 — not

无 — no

无邚 — nor

Ligature Database: About



In standard English orthography, one can write numbers in either: 1) Arabic numerals, or 2) lexically written out—depending on what’s appropriate for the context.  Hwayih Woen preserves this binary.  Where writing Arabic numerals is appropriate in Standard English, so too is it appropriate to directly use Arabic numerals in Hwayih Woen.  Where “writing out” numbers is necessary, Hwayih Woen makes use of the following ligatures. 


零 — zero

一 — one

二 — two

三 — three

四 — four

五 — five

六 — six

七 — seven

八 — eight

九 — nine

十 — ten

十一 — eleven

十二 — twelve

十三 — thirteen

十四 — fourteen

十五 — fifteen

二十 — twenty

三十 — thirty

四十 — forty

五十 — fifty

一百 — one hundred

二百 — two hundred

一千 — one thousand

二千 — two thousand

十千 — ten thousand

二十千 — twenty thousand

一亿 — one million

一兆 — one billion


壹 — first

贰 — second

叁 — third

肆 — fourth

伍 — fifth

踛 — sixth

柒 — seventh

捌 — eighth

玖 — ninth

拾 — tenth

佰 — hundredth

仟 — thousandth

億 — millionth

窕 — billionth

The reader will note the following operative principle: in cases where one “writes out” ordinal numbers, ligature forms MATCH Standard English’s written forms.  For example, when writing out the full name of the “One Hundred and First Airborne Division,” Hwayih Woen will appropriately render as: 一 百 与 壹 空降师.  However, when using Arabic numerals, Hwayih Woen places the ligature 第 BEFORE the number sequence.  Taking the previous example in its most common form, the “101st Airborne Division” will render as: “|第101 空降师|.”

Note: In this respect, the ligature 第 is equivalent to the superscript “st” behind a number, albeit in the prefix position as opposed to the Standard English suffix position. 


Hwayih Woen attaches the ligature 次 AFTER the cardinal number to create the multiplicative form.  As in:

一次 — once

二次 — twice

三次 — thrice


In instances where Standard English uses the word “time/s” to indicate the multiplicative, Hwayih Woen uses the ligature 时 after the cardinal number, following Standard English spacing conventions.  As in:

一时 — one time

二时们 — two times


Ligature Database: About




(至)乃 — (to) be

Present Tense:

係 — am

喺 — are

是 — is

Past Tense:

係了 — was

喺了 — were

Continuous Tense:

乃笝 — been

Ligature Database: About



Present Tense:

有甶 — have

有拶 — has

Past Tense:

有迚 — had

Ligature Database: About



Present Tense:

去 — go

去拶 — goes

Past Tense:

去了 — went

Ligature Database: About



说 — say

说沞 — says

说了 — said

讲 — speak

讲沞 — speaks

讲了 — spoke

谈 — talk

谈沞 — talks

谈坔 — talked

告诉 — tell

告诉沞 — tells

告诉了 — told

Ligature Database: About



获 — get

获沞 — gets

获了 — got

取 — take

取沞 — takes

取了 — took

携带 — bring

携带沞 — brings

携带了 — brought

拿 — hold

拿沞 — holds

拿了 — held

拎 — carry

拎沞 — carries

拎坔 — carried

Ligature Database: About



找 — find

找沞 — finds

找了 — found

觅求 — search

觅求沞 — searches

觅求坔 — searched

寻觅 — seek

寻觅沞 — seeks

寻觅了 — sought

Ligature Database: About



多笝籴 — many

多虿 — much

多邚 — more

多最 — most

Ligature Database: About



少襾汙 — few

少屲荋 — fewer

少最 — fewest

少卅 — less

少卅荋 — lesser

少最 — least

Ligature Database: About



可 — can

可了 — could

Note: When the verb “can” is used to indicate past tense, use the above ligature, as in: “I could do the splits when I was 19 years old.”  However, when used to indicate modality, write out 偘歮迚 using the phonetic characters, as in: “I could easily teach class if I wanted to.”

做 — do

做沞 — does

做了 — did

使 — make

使沞 — makes

使了 — made

让 — let

让沞 — lets

将会 — will

宁 — would

需 — need

需沞 — needs

需坔 — needed

要 — want

要沞 — wants

要坔 — wanted

用 — use

用沞 — uses

用坔 — used

看 — look

看沞 — looks

看坔 — looked

见 — see

见沞 — sees

见了 — saw

撰写 — write

撰写沞 — writes

撰写了 — wrote

叫 — call

叫沞 — calls

叫坔 — called

成 — become

成沞 — becomes

成了 — became

想 — think

想沞 — thinks

想了 — thought

来 — come

来沞 — comes

来了 — came

坐 — sit

坐沞 — sits

坐了 — sat

立 — stand

立沞 — stands

立了 — stood

像 — like (when making a comparison between objects or things, as in: “voices like angels”)

喜欢 — like (when used as a verb, as in: “dogs like treats”)

喜欢沞 — likes

喜欢坔 — liked

Ligature Database: About



词 — word

词拶 — words

人 — person

人拶 — persons

民 — people

民拶 — peoples

日 — day

日拶 — days

道 — way

道拶 — ways

国 — country

国度 — state (to describe an apparatus of governance, as in: “the state”)

州 — state (to describe a federal subsidiary structure, as in: “New York State”)

状态 — state (to describe a condition, as in: “a state of chaos”)

囻 — nation

囻迚籴 — nationality

Ligature Database: About



都 — all

各 — each

每 — every

任 — any

另 — other

些 — some (when describing a moderate amount, as in: “some cash”)

某 — some (when describing the generic, as in : “some unknown location”)

长 — long

短 — short

大玍 — big

大抯 — large

小旯 — small

稍 — little

能 — able

Ligature Database: About



很 — very

曾 — ever

笝曾 — never

仍 — still

尚 — yet

Struggling with the complexity of these logograms?

Click below for Unit One of McGuffey's First Eclectic Reader—Senior Script edition.

Ligature Database: About
Ligature Database: About
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