Image by 五玄土 ORIENTO


Obligatory Punctuation

By and large, Hwayih Woen follows standard written English punctuation conventions.

Punctuation conventions unique to Hwayih Woen are listed below:



Suspended Double Dots

In instances where a passage of text intends for Chinese characters to be read according to their Mandarin pronunciation, Hwayih Woen encloses the relevant characters in double suspended dots, as in:

··朗朗·· 是 个 著名 乐师。

Langlang is a famous musician.

本 ··汉语水平考试·· 有拶 6 级别拶。

The Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi has 6 levels.

我 有甶 个 朋友 谁 住拶 内 ··辽宁··。

I have a friend who lives in Liaoning.




Vertical Bars

Just as standard written English capitalizes proper nouns, Hwayih Woen, correspondingly, encloses proper nouns (to be pronounced in English) in single vertical bars, as in:

Los Angeles — |洛杉矶|

Niagara Falls — |尼亚加拉瀑布|

Paris — |巴黎|

Mars — |火星|

Anglo-Saxon — |盎格鲁-撒克逊|

Microsoft — |微软|

Pizza Hut — |必胜客|




Suspended Single Dots

As already noted in the introduction, establishing the miniscule forms of the phonetic characters should preclude a need for representing the majescule forms in Unicode from ever arising.  In other words, one should only ever have to use the majescule forms in the context of handwriting.  However, should some obscure need ever occur, requiring the user to input the majescule forms into a digital medium, Hwayih Woen allows Suspended Single Dots to represent the constituent components of those majescule forms that currently do not exist in Unicode.  Examples include: 

·么如· for 荋

·色拉· for 泐

·浊发· for 甶

·浊咬舌· for 芔


Users can use a standard Pīnyīn and/or Zhùyīn keyboard to easily input the majescule forms that already exist in Unicode into a digital medium.

Image by Clarissa Watson


Courtesy Punctuation

By definition, courtesy notations are not strictly necessary.  Rather, they exist to provide tools to assist reading and promote clarity on the basis of the writer’s discretion.



Courtesy Double Vertical Bars

Hwayih Woen permits, but does not obligate, the writer to use double vertical bars to enclose poly-character vocabulary words that do not appear on the ligature list, as in:

我 用坔 至 喜欢 去着 至 本 ||电影||拶。

I used to like going to the movies.

咱 做 不 ||谈判|| 跟 本 ||敌人||。

We do not negotiate with the enemy.


Note: the enclosing bars do no include characters indicating inflection.  This assists the student reader to readily identify the relevant lexical unit when looking up words in the dictionary.



Courtesy Braces

At the time of this writing, consumer computing technology does not widely allow the generic user to embed ruby-script in a non-Furigana or Zhuyin Fuhao context.  Consequently, in instances where the reading of a character or (more frequently) combination of characters is unclear, Hwayih Woen permits the writer to place its phonetic pronunciation in braces directly following the vocabulary word, as in:

挑选{苩佀偘}着 个 妻子 或 丈夫 要求拶 个 很 谨慎{苩邚汙迚个笝夳} 捐选 过程。

Picking a wife or husband requires a very prudent selection process.

他嘅 女朋友 绞扭了{邚凬} 她嘅 手拶 为 个笝 钟头。

His girlfriend wrung her hands for an hour.

Note: inflections are not included in the courtesy brace, and are instead placed directly after the brace.  In instances where the inflection is irregular, the inflection particle comes before the courtesy brace. 

This not only provides disambiguation functionality; but also, it enables the writer to attribute non-standard readings to vocabulary words according to his intentions—a tool providing great potential for individual creative space and freedom.  In single unit documents like essays or articles, the prescribed reading is presumed to hold through the entire document unless otherwise notated.  In multi-segment documents like books, the reading is presumed to hold until the end of the chapter unless otherwise notated, at which point Hwayih Woen recommends the writer provide another courtesy brace notation. 



Courtesy P.O.S. (Parts of Speech) Punctuation

Of all the courtesy notations, the user will arguably use courtesy P.O.S. punctuation the most.  Because Chinese characters do not elegantly distinguish between parts of speech, courtesy P.O.S. punctuation is a powerful disambiguation tool, particularly in a senior script context.  The four courtesy P.O.S. punctuation marks are as follows:

The tilde for Nouns~

The carrot for Adjectives^

The astrisk for Verbs*

The back-sloping comma for Adverbs、

Courtesy P.O.S. punctuation marks are placed directly after the word they disambiguate, as in:

··华裔问·· 觅求沞 至 简单得、 简单* 简单^ 简单~。

Hwayih Woen seeks to simply simplify simple simplicity.

Note: Although the suffix “得” is sufficient to demarcate an adverb in the vast majority of cases, Hwayih Woen provides the redundancy of the combination “得、”in those rare instances where further clarification is required. 

Note: Courtesy P.O.S. punctuation marks are typically not appended to words contained within the ligature list.

Note: When writing in the junior script, this manual highly recommends using courtesy P.O.S. punctuation marks to assist reading clarity and ease.